Fabrics are the most complicated of the materials discussed here because the weave of the fabric stresses the fibers in different ways and sophisticated analysis is required to determine the stresses. In order to simplify the way fabrics are analyzed we are only going to consider individual fibers. If the tension in a single fiber due to a specified loading can be determined, then a fabric can be selected to meet the fiber design strength. Therefore this section is going to focus on fibers and their properties. However, for an even easier and more practical approach, design to failure stresses found from manufacturers' working load data and use appropriate factors of safety.
Common Fibers & their Applications
Table F1 - Common Fibers & their Applications - Compiled from several sources including the CRC Handbook
|Cotton||Age, heat, washing, wear solvents, alkalies, insects||Almost all textile uses|
|Jute||Sacking, bale wrapping, curtains, bags|
|Kenaf||Rope, twine, carpet, canvas, bags|
|Hemp||Rope, sacking, canvas|
|Henequen||Rope, twine, canvas, bags|
|Manufactured (man-made or synthetic) Fibers|
|Polyacrylonitrile (acrylic)||Dilute acids and alkalies, solvents, insects, mildew, weather||Outdoor fabrics, carpets, knits, blankets|
|Polyamide||Alkalies, molds, solvents, moths||Tire cord, carpet, upholstery, apparel, belting, hose, tents|
|Polyester||Weak acids and alkalies, solvents, oils, mildew, moths||Apparel, curtains, rope, twine, sailcloth, belting, fiberfill|
|Polyethylene (olefin low density)||Alkalies, acids (except nitric), insects, mildew||Outdoor fabrics, filter fabrics|
|Polyethylene (olefin high density)||Alkalies, acids (except nitric), insects, mildew||Rope, twine, fishnets|
|Polypropylene (olefin)||Alkalies, acids, insects, mildew||Rope, twine, outdoor fabrics, carpets, upholstery|
|Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)||Acids, alkalies, insects, mildew, oils||Wide range of industrial and apparel uses, rope, work clothes, fish nets|
|Polyvinylidene chloride||Acids, most alkalies, alcohol, insects, mildew, weather||Outdoor fabrics, insect screens, curtains, upholstery, carpet, work clothes|
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0633602. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recomendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).
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Pennsylvania State University
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
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